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International Astronomical Union


Category of Astronomical Heritage: tangible immovable
Kharkov Observatory, Ukraine

Format: IAU - Outstanding Astronomical Heritage Description

Description

Geographical position 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 171
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    Version: 2
    Status: PUB
    Date: 2021-03-13 04:40:40
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Kharkov (Charkiw, Charkow) Observatory, Kharkiv, Ukraine
See also: Chuhuiv Observational Station, 70 km southeast from Kharkov

 

Location 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2021-03-13 04:41:56
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Latitude 50°50’09’’ N, Longitude 36°13’51’’ E, Elevation 138m above mean sea level.

 

IAU observatory code 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 171
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    Date: 2021-03-13 04:13:43
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

101

 

Description of (scientific/cultural/natural) heritage 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 171
    Subentity: 1
    Version: 4
    Status: PUB
    Date: 2021-04-03 00:04:41
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

 

Telescope in the Museum of Astronomy of V. N. Kara

Fig. 1. Telescope in the Museum of Astronomy of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (Wikipedia 4, Oleksiy.golubov)



In 1808, Grigori Vasiljevich Levitsky (1852--1917) established an astronomical cabinet. P.A. Zateplinskiy (1794--1834), PhD in Paris Sorbonne, became the first professor and head of the newly founded astronomy department in 1924.
In 1883, Grigori Vasiljevich Levitsky (1852--1917) was nominated as director. In 1888, an observatory building was erected and instruments acquired.

Kharkiv Observatory, 1891--1900 (Wikipedia)

Fig. 2. Kharkiv Observatory, 1891--1900 (Wikipedia)

Research topics: Astrometry and stellar astronometry (started by Ludwig Struve), planetary astronomy like solar, lunar and planetary physics was started by astrophysicists Vasiliy Grigorjevich Fessenkov (1889--1972), physics of satellites, asteroids and comets, fundamental astronomy.

 

History 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 171
    Subentity: 1
    Version: 3
    Status: PUB
    Date: 2021-03-29 21:12:31
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

The main building of Kharkiv Observatory (1808) (W

Fig. 3. The main building of Kharkiv Observatory (1808) (Wikipedia 4, Oleksiy.golubov)

Directors of Kharkov Astronomical Observatory

  • 1824 to 1834  P.A. Zateplinskiy (1794--1834)
  • ....
  • 1883 to 1894  Grigori Vasiljevich Levitsky (1852--1917)
  • 1894 to 1917  Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig [Liudvig] von Struve (1858--1920)
  • 1917 to 1929  Nikolai [Mykola] Nikolajevich Yevdokimov (1868--1940)
  • 1930 to 1971  Nikolai [Mykola] Pavlovich Barabashov (1894--1971)
  • 1971 to 1977  Vladimir [Volodimir] Yezerskiy (....)
  • 1977 to 1993  Vladimir Nikolajevich Dudinov (1938--2016)
  • 1993 to 2004  Vladimir Anatolyevich Zakhozhay (1952--2019)
  • 2004 to 2014  Yuriy Grigorovich Shkuratov (*1952)
  • since 2014      Vadym Grigorovich Kaydash (*1971)

 

Departments of the Institute of Astronomy

  • Department of Astrophysics, (The chief  is Dr. A.P. Zheleznyak).
  • Laboratory of Astrometry (The chief is Prof. P.N. Fedorov);
  • Department of physics of asteroids and comets (The chief  is Prof. I.N. Belskaya);
  • Department of remote sensing of planets (The chief  is the correspondent member of NANU, Prof. Yu.G. Shkuratov);
  • Department of physics of the Sun, the Moon and planets (The chief  is Dr. V.V. Korokhin).

Meridian Circle, Repsold of Hamburg (1904) of Khar

Fig. 4. Meridian Circle, Repsold of Hamburg (1904) of Kharkiv Observatory (Wikipedia, Nevidomy, Kharkiv University Museum of History of Astronomy)



Instruments of Kharkov Observatory



  • Meridian circle, Repsold of Hamburg (1904)
  • Transit instrument
  • Spectroheliograph
  • 20-cm Refractor, Zeiss of Jena
  • 27-cm-Reflector
  • Coherent-optical image processor system
  • 70-cm-Reflecting-telescope (AZT-8)
  • Solar-telescope (AFR-2)

      The Ukrainian T-shape Radio telescope (UTR-2) is the world’s largest phased array operating at decametric wavelengths. Located near Grakovo village, about 80 km from Kharkov, northeast Ukraine, UTR-2 has a collecting area of 150,000 square meters and a resolution of about 40 arcminutes at its center frequency of 16.7 MHz.

       

      State of preservation 
      • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
        Entity: 171
        Subentity: 1
        Version: 2
        Status: PUB
        Date: 2021-03-29 21:20:36
        Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

      The Kharkiv Observatory seems to be in good condition.

      Dome in Kharkiv Observatory (Wikipedia 4, Oleksiy.

      Fig. 5. Dome in Kharkiv Observatory (Wikipedia 4, Oleksiy.golubov)

       

      Present use 
      • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
        Entity: 171
        Subentity: 1
        Version: 2
        Status: PUB
        Date: 2021-03-29 21:21:02
        Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

      Astronomical Museum in Kharkiv Observatory

       

      References

      Bibliography (books and published articles) 
      • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
        Entity: 171
        Subentity: 1
        Version: 3
        Status: PUB
        Date: 2021-03-29 21:21:33
        Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

      • Balyshev, Marat: History of Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory.
         
      • Kharkiv Astronomical Observatory. In: Encyklopedia of Ukraine, Vol. 2 (1988).
         
      • Kharkov Astronomical Observatory. In: The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (3rd edition )1970--1979.
         
      • UTR-2. Kharkov radio telescope. In: Collins Dictionary of Astronomy. Market House Books Ltd 2006.
         
      • Vavilova, I.B.; Karetnikov, V.G.; Konovalenko, A.A.; Logvinenko, O.O.; Pinigin, G.I. & N.V. Steshenko: Astronomical Sites in the Ukraine: Current Status and Problems of Preservation. In: Preserving the Astronomical Sky, Proceedings of IAU Symposium 196, held 12--16 July 1999, in Vienna, Austria. Edited by R.J. Cohen and W.T. Sullivan (2001), p. 153, 2001IAUS..196..153V

         

         

        Links to external sites 
        • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
          Entity: 171
          Subentity: 1
          Version: 2
          Status: PUB
          Date: 2021-03-13 04:44:33
          Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt


        • Aleksandrov, Yurij V.: Institute of Astronomy, Kharkiv National University, History, http://www.astron.kharkov.ua/history/ (2020/11/03)
        • Chuguev Observational Station, http://www.astron.kharkov.ua/grakovo/
        • Institute of Astronomy of Kharkiv National University, http://www.astron.kharkov.ua/index.html
        • Research Institute of Astronomy, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University (2002), http://astron.kharkov.ua/

             

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