In collaboration with the
International Astronomical Union


Category of Astronomical Heritage: tangible immovable
Bucharest Observatory, Bucuresti, Romania

Format: IAU - Outstanding Astronomical Heritage

Description

Geographical position 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2021-10-28 04:26:00
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Bucharest Observatory,
Str. Cutitul de Argint 5, 040557 Bucuresti, Romania

 

Location 
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Latitude 44.410825 N, longitude 26.094853 E, Elevation ...m above mean sea level.

 

IAU observatory code 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

073

 

Description of (scientific/cultural/natural) heritage 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2021-11-17 16:28:50
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

 

Meteorological Institute of Romania with Meridian

Fig. 1. Meteorological Institute of Romania with Meridian Hall and Sun Building (1893)

 

Already in 1884, the Meteorological Institute of Romania was founded by the meteorologist and physicist Stefan Hepites, in addition a small Meridian Hall (1893) and a Sun Building (1893).

Minister Spiru Haret (1851--1912)

Fig. 2a. Minister Spiru Haret (1851--1912)



Nicolae C. Coculescu (1866--1952), director from 1

Fig. 2b. Nicolae C. Coculescu (1866--1952), director from 1908 to 1937

 

In 1908, the Minister Spiru Haret (1851--1912), founded the Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory in Bucharest in Filaret Hill, under the leadership of Nicolae C. Coculescu (1866--1952), director from 1908 to 1937. From 1890 to 1895, he studied in Paris (PhD); his topics of research were celestial mechanics and the calculation of planetary perturbations.

Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory in Buc

Fig. 3a. Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory in Bucharest (1908), Meridian Hall (HPIM3410)



 

Astronomical Institute of Romania with Meridian Ha

Fig. 3b. Astronomical Institute of Romania with Meridian Hall, Dome of the Gautier-Prin-Equatorial Telescope, installed in 1926


The Bucharest Oservatory on Filaret Hill consists of a Main Building, an Equatorial Dome of 11.5-m-diameter, and a Meridian Hall. It was built by the Belgian architect Adolphe Engels in neo-classical architectural style, with the help of the engineer Mihail Roco.

Bosianu House in octagonal shape (1859), Library o

Fig. 4a. Bosianu House in octagonal shape (1859), Library of the Astronomical Institute (HPIM3401)



Bosianu House, Library of the Astronomical Institu

Fig. 4b. Bosianu House, Library of the Astronomical Institute

The Bosianu House in Romantic architectural style, with beautiful and exotic decorations, was built already in 1859 by Luigi Lipizer and uses octagonal shape. It is used today as Library of the Astronomical Institute.
 

Astronomical Institute (1958), (HPIM3405)

Fig. 5a. Astronomical Institute (1958), (HPIM3405)



Sun Dome of the Astronomical Institute (1958), (HP

Fig. 5b. Sun Dome of the Astronomical Institute (1958), (HPIM3406)

 

In 1920, the Observatory was reorganized and meteorology and astronomy were separated.
The Sun Dome for monitoring the Sun with several Zeiss telescopes and CCD cameras was built in 1958.

Since 1990, the "Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy" has three observatories in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca and Timisoara, comprising several scientific research facilities.
 

 

 

History 
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    Date: 2022-03-15 19:57:06
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

 

Astronomical Institute of Romania with Meridian Ha

Fig. 6a. Astronomical Institute of Romania with Meridian Hall, Gautier-Prin-telescope, installed in 1926



Meridian Circle (Stavinschi)

Fig. 6b. Meridian Circle (Stavinschi)

 

Instruments

  • 19cm/235cm-Large Meridian Circle (19cm0/235cm), two declination circles of 1m diameter, divided at every 5’, with an impersonal micrometer,
    two meridian marks located in a distance of 80-100m
     
  • 38cm/6m-Prin-Merz Double Astrograph (1912), the largest refracting telescope in Romania, in an 11.5-m-dome and with an elevating platform.
  • Ascorecord machine for measuring photographic plates (24x24cm), CCD camera (1995)
     
  • 50cm/750cm Cassegrain Telescope (1964) with UBVRI filter system (Johnson photometric system)
     
  • 130/1950mm Solar Refractor for white light photospheric, made by VEB Zeiss of Jena (1957),  CCD cameras for monitoring the Sun
  • 80/1200mm Solar Refractor for chromospheric observations, H-alpha Filter
  • 110mm/1650mm Refractor, made by VEB Zeiss of Jena (1958), H-alpha Filter


38-cm-Prin-Merz Double Astrograph (1912)

Fig. 7a. 38-cm-Prin-Merz Double Astrograph (1912)



38-cm-Prin-Merz Double Astrograph (1912) (Stavinsc

Fig. 7b. 38-cm-Prin-Merz Double Astrograph (1912) (Stavinschi)



Solar refractors with equatorial mounting

Fig. 8a. Solar refractors with equatorial mounting



50-cm-Cassegrain-Telescope (1964), (n8Je3DT)

Fig. 8b. 50-cm-Cassegrain-Telescope (1964), (n8Je3DT)



Directors

  • Nicolae C. Coculescu (1866--1952), director from 1908 to 1937
  • Constantin C. Popovici (1878--1956), director from 1938 to 1943
  • Gheorghe Demetrescu (1885--1969), director from 1943 to 1963

 

 

State of preservation 
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    Entity: 216
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    Date: 2021-10-28 04:29:01
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

The Bucharest Oservatory is well preserved.

 

Comparison with related/similar sites 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 216
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    Date: 2021-10-28 04:24:38
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no information available

 

Threats or potential threats 
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    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

no threats

 

Present use 
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    Date: 2021-11-08 02:00:36
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

The Bucharest Observatory is still used for astrophysical research.
In 1999, a Planetarium was added to the northern side of the main building, built by the architect Octav Dimitriu the civil engineer Radu Popescu.

Planetarium (1999), (Stavinschi)

Fig. 9. Planetarium (1999), (Stavinschi)

 

Astronomical relevance today 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 216
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    Date: 2021-11-08 02:06:29
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

The Bucharest Observatory is still used for astrophysical research.
Since 1990, the Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy has three observatories -- not only in Bucharest, but also in Cluj-Napoca (1921--1934, demolished in 1977, new building in 1982) and Timisoara (1962), comprising several scientific research facilities.

Cluj-Napoca Astronomical Observatory (1982)

Fig. 10a. Cluj-Napoca Astronomical Observatory (1982)



Timisoara Astronomical Observatory (1962)

Fig. 10b. Timisoara Astronomical Observatory (1962)

 

References

Bibliography (books and published articles) 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 216
    Subentity: 1
    Version: 3
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    Date: 2021-11-08 02:01:48
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

  • Dumitrache, Cristiana & Nedelia Antonia Popescu: Fifty Years of Romanian Astrophysics. Editura Cartea Universitara 2008.
     
  • Stavinschi, Magda & Catalin Mosoia: Considering Heritage as Part of Astronomy - 100 Years of Bucharest Observatory. In: Wolfschmidt, Gudrun (ed.): Cultural Heritage of Astronomical Observatories -- From Classical Astronomy to Modern Astrophysics. Proceedings of International ICOMOS Symposium in Hamburg, October 14--17, 2008. Berlin: hendrik Bäßler-Verlag (International Council on Monuments and Sites, Monuments and Sites XVIII) 2009, p. 164-175.

 

 

Links to external sites 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 216
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    Version: 3
    Status: PUB
    Date: 2021-11-08 02:02:18
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

 

 

Links to external on-line pictures 
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    Entity: 216
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    Status: PUB
    Date: 2021-10-28 04:24:39
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

no information available

 

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