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Category of Astronomical Heritage: tangible immovable
Nuremberg castle observatory, Germany

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Geographical position 
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    Date: 2018-08-06 16:49:21
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Nuremberg Castle, northern bastion (Vestnertorbastei, D-90403 Nürnberg)


  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Lat. 49° 27′ 30″ N, long. 11° 04′ 35″ E, elevation of the bastion 334m above mean sea level (castle 352m).


IAU observatory code 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2019-06-17 12:31:12
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt



Description of (scientific/cultural/natural) heritage 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2019-06-19 15:14:48
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

Nuremberg was already famous in respect to astronomy at the end of the Middle Ages. Nikolaus von Kues [Cusanus] (1401-1464) bought his instruments in Nuremberg in 1444; they are now in the Bernkastel-Kues. In 1471 Regiomontanus [Johannes Müller] (1436-1476) came to Nuremberg, which he named as "quasi centrum Europae"; he used the roof of his house as an observing post and opened a workshop for making instruments and a printing and publishing house. Later his scholar Bernhard Walter (1430-1504) erected a first "observatory" (he added a small platform for his movable instruments in the gable window) in the house, where the painter Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) lived and worked (Zistelgasse, today Albrecht-Dürer-Straße 39) and measured detailed positions of comets, planets and stars with his armillary sphere.

Nicolaus Copernicus’ "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" was printed in the "Offizin" (printing and publishing place) of Johannes Petreius (1497-1550) in Nuremberg (Ölberg 9, Obere Schmiedgasse 10) in 1543. Nuremberg had aready been a center of printing since the end of the 15th century. In 1470 Anton Koberger (1440-1513) opened his "Offizin", where the Weltchronik (1493) of Hartmann Schedel (1440-1514) was printed. Tycho Brahe’s "Astronomiae instauratae mechanica" was printed by Levinus Hulsius in 1602.

The Baroque Eimmart observatory in Nuremberg (1678-1757)

Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion

Fig. 1. Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion "Vestnertor" of Nuremberg castle (Doppelmayer, J.G.: Atlas novus coelestis, Nürnberg 1742)

Eimmart’s observatory (Gaab 2010) came into being when the Hevelius observatory came nearly to its end. It was one of the few larger observatories in Europe like Copenhagen (1642), Paris (1667), Greenwich (1675), Berlin (1700), Marseille (1702), Bologna (1712/26) and Prague (1722).

Eimmart’s remarkable instruments, most of which he made by himself, were as follows:

  • Trient (one third of a circle, 120°) with an alidade (sight rule), made of brass and iron for measuring in north-south-direction (16 foot = 486cm), made by Johann Ludtring (1628-1688), 1687;
  • Circle instruments: a small semicircle (Semicyclus, Hemyclus), made of brass and iron (3 foot = 91cm), hanging on a stack; a large azimuth circle (diameter 5 foot = 152cm) "a large horizontal circle with a most exact meridian line" (Hoppen 1970), an armillary sphere of iron (radius 6 foot = 182cm);
  • Quadrants: a large wooden double quadrant (radius 10 foot = 304cm) with a limbus made of brass, around 1680 (in 1687 replaced by the trient); a double quadrant in east-west-direction (radius 2 foot = 61cm); a small revolvable azimuthal quadrant of brass (2 foot = 61cm); a large hanging azimuthal quadrant of iron (6 foot = 182cm);
  • Sextants, octants and sectors: an iron sextant (5 foot = 152cm, accuracy of reading 500); a sextant of iron and brass (5 foot = 152cm); an octant (sextant) of iron and brass of 10° (7 foot = 213cm); a sector or radius with a 5°-segment (9 foot = 274cm); a sector or radius with a 10°-segment (7 foot = 213cm);
  • Telescopes, length 16, 12 and 10 foot (486cm, 365cm and 304cm), mounted on a pillar;
  • Instruments for observing the sun: two cameras obscuras for observing the sun; a helioscopium for weakening of the sunlight during the observation; a machina helioscopia, a projection device for observing the sun;
  • Clocks of the observatory: an astronomical clock (pendulum clock); an equinoctial clock; a sun dial in the shape of an armillary sphere on three pilars, made by Zacharias Landeck (1636-1712). After the death of Eimmart the instruments were acquired in 1705 by the city council for 1500 fl.
  • A planetarium made by Johann Ludtring (1628-1688): In 1680 an orrery (planetarium) "Sphaera armillaris" was made for Georg Christoph Eimmart by the Nuremberg mechanicus and compass maker Johann Ludtring (1628-1688). In the wooden base is an driving gear made of iron; the armillary sphere is made of gilded brass. This heliocentric model of the solar system was described by Johannes Christoph Sturm (1635-1703) in his publication "Sphaerae armillaris" (Altdorf 1695), after two Nuremberg merchants acquired the model in 1690 for the enormous sum of 300 guilders (200 thalers) for the University of Altdorf. In 1711 the orrery was erected in the observatory there.

The instruments of Eimmart’s observatory in Nure

Fig. 2. The instruments of Eimmart’s observatory in Nuremberg: Quadrants, sextants, telescopes and astronomical clocks (Delsenbach 1716)

Georg Christoph Eimmart (1638-1705) was active in making instruments, globes and maps like his successor Doppelmayer. Eimmart’s traces and papers can be found Sweden (Gerstl 2000), St. Petersburg, Bologna and Vienna. His scholar Johann Christoph Müller was active in cartography of Bohemia, Moravia and Hungary (Deák 2010). Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) und Ismael Boulliau (1605-1694) made the remark "Nuremberg is the best place for studying astronomy in whole Germany" ("Nürnberg [sei ...] der beste ort pro studio Astronomiae in gantz Deutschland", cf. Staatsbibliothek St. Petersburg, Φ N 998, Eimmart Papers (57 vol.), Vol. 2, fol. 17r, quoted after Gaab 2010, p. 229).

Copernicanican Planetarium (diameter 50cm, height

Fig. 3. Copernicanican Planetarium (diameter 50cm, height 55cm, diameter of the sun 5cm), Georg Christoph Eimmart, Nuremberg, 1680, made by the compasss smith Johann Ludtring (Photo: Gudrun Wolfschmidt)

Johann Jacob Sandrart (1630-1708) published flysheets of the large comet of 1680 above the Eimmart observatory (Der große Komet von 1680 über der Eimmart-Sternwarte); and again in 1682 (for Halley’s comet) - a detailed representation of the observatory with all the instruments and Eimmart is observing with a telescope.

Eimmart Planisphaerium Coeleste (1705), around 173

Fig. 4. Eimmart Planisphaerium Coeleste (1705), around 1730

Eimmart’s daughter Maria Clara Eimmart (1676-1707) was an early woman astronomer, who was observing the moon in a very detailed way from 1693 to 1698; she painted the moon phases in 250 sketches; some of them have survived in the Museo della Specola, Bologna. In addition she observed the total solar eclipse in May 12, 1706. In January 1705 she married Johann Heinrich Müller (1671-1731), who was assistant in the observatory since 1687. She died already in puerperium in 1707.

Eimmart’s observatory was not so much a place for research but a place for teaching astronomy. Many assistants, who lived in his home, were educated here and this instruction in mathematics, observational astronomy and geography was the basis for becoming later important in the field of astronomy or cartography.

Astronomical illustrations (moon phase, Saturn, Ve

Fig. 5. Astronomical illustrations (moon phase, Saturn, Venus) made by Maria Clara Eimmart (1676-1707), (Museo della Specola Bologna, Wikipedia)

The observatory was internationally recognized; In 1699 Eimmart became member of the "Academie des Sciences" in Paris and in 1701 of the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

Eimmart’s observatory was the first public observatory (observation of lunar eclipses and of the total solar eclipse 1706) - perhaps worldwide, he was an early "populariser of science".

Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nurember

Fig. 6. Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nuremberg castle (Volckamer, Johann Christoph: Nürnbergische Hesperides. Nürnberg 1708, 24.Capitel, p.106)


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Georg Christoph Eimmart (1638-1705), born in Regensburg, studied since 1655 mathematics in Jena, supervised by professor Erhard Weigel (1625-1699), who had erected an observatory on the roof of the  "Collegium Jenense" 1655 - may be Eimmart was already here inspired to be interested in astronomy. Eimmart earned his money with cartography and published a number of maps. In 1690 Eimmart published the "Planisphaerium Caeleste", a celestial map of the nothern and southern sky with additional informations. In 1704 he started with globe making. The positions of the stars were based on epoch 1700 and were taken from Hevelius’ "Prodromus Astronomiae" (1690).


Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nure

Fig. 7. Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nuremberg castle (Johann Adam Delsenbach 1716)


In 1678 Eimmart founded his private observatory on the bastion Vestnertor on the north side of the Nuremberg castle and observed there for 26 years. In 1699 Eimmart became director of the art academy was founded in Nuremberg in 1662 by Jacob von Sandrart (1630-1708), which is the oldest art academy north of the alps.

After his death in 1705 the City of Nuremberg acquired the observatory and Eimmart’s son-in-law Johann Heinrich Müller (1671-1731) was appoited as director; he was already from 1687 to 1692 assistant at the Eimmart’s observatory. From 1692 he studied mathematics in the University of Altdorf, 1697 in Giessen and 1699 in Tübingen. In 1705 he became professor of mathematics at the "Gymnasium" Aegidianum, a high school which prepared for the university. In 1710 he got a call as professor in Altdorf university and director of the observatory (Altdorf is at the outskirts of Nuremberg).

Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nure

Fig. 8. Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nuremberg castle (Homann, Johann Baptist: Prospect und Grundris der des Heil. Röm. Reichs-Stadt Nürnberg, 1718)

The 3rd director, since 1710, was Johann Gabriel Doppelmayer (1677-1750), very talented astronomer and cartographer, but not interested in instruments. He was in close contact to the cartographer Johann Baptist Homann (1664-1724), who had founded a printing and publishing house for maps and globes in Nuremberg (Fembo house, Burgberg, today City Museum) in 1702. Doppelmayer (1707, S. 21f.) constructed a map showing the path of the total solar eclipse through Europe (and Nuremberg) in 1706, which was very successful. Thus Homann started to be interested in astronomy and published star charts and "Atlas novus coelestis" (1742). Since 1728 Doppelmayer also published together with the copper engraver Johann Georg Puschner d.Ä. (1680-1749) terrestrial and celestial globes (diameters 10, 19,5 and 32cm), which can be found in different museums today.

After Doppelmayer’s death in 1750, Georg Moritz Lowitz (1722-1774), son-in-law of Tobias Mayer (1723-1762) and director of the Gymnasium Aegidianum, was appointed as director, but he decided that the instruments were in too bad condition due to this open air observatory, suffering from wind and weather. Only the valuable small instruments like Eimmart’s "Kunstuhr" (clock) and Copernican orrery were protected in huts. He tried to revitalize the observatory, but in vain; the observatory stopped its activities in 1757.

Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731-1802), 1769 professor of mathematics and physics at the Gymnasium Aegidianum, tried in vain to rebuild the observatory but the city of Nuremberg was no longer willing to finance it (Gaab 2003). He observed the transit of Venus in 1761 with a Gregory reflecting telescope from the roof of the Toplerhaus.

Assistants of the observatory

1679  - 1684:     Johann Samuel Schoder (1660-1740)
1680?- 1683:     Christoph Jacob Glaser (1662-1722)
1683  - 1686:     Johann Christoph Klimm (ca. 1668-1729)
168?  - 1686:     Daniel Büttel (1665-1722)
1687?- 1692:     Johann Heinrich Müller (1671-1731)
1692  - 1696:     Johann Christoph Müller (1673-1721)
1696  - 1700:     Peter Kolb (1675-1726)
1700  - 1703:     Johann Wilhelm Wagner (1681-1745)
Further assistants

Maria Clara Eimmart (1676-1707)
Johann Leonhard Rost (1688-1727)
Johann Carl Rost (1690-1731)
Johann Jacob Scheuchzer (1672-1733)
Christoph Wegleiter (1659-1706)
Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725)



State of preservation 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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    Date: 2018-08-09 23:15:12
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt

The bastion is still there, but the observatory is no longer existing, but on the place of the former observatory (Vestnertorbastei) a monument was erected in 2007 memorating Georg Christoph Eimmart (1638-1705), the founder of the observatory and first director.

Monument for Eimmart on the bastion, 2007 (Wikiped

Fig. 9. Monument for Eimmart on the bastion, 2007 (Wikipedia, Photo: Andreas Praefcke)

A quadrant is in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum (GNM).
A model was made by M. Nelkenbrecher (Nürnberger Astronomische Arbeitsgemeinschaft).

Model of Eimmart’s observatory on the bastio

Fig. 10. Model of Eimmart’s observatory on the bastion of Nuremberg castle (model was made by M. Nelkenbrecher, Nürnberger Astronomische Arbeitsgemeinschaft)


Comparison with related/similar sites 
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    Date: 2018-08-09 23:16:29
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Eimmart was influenced by Hevelius - not only concerning the instruments - but also in planning his observatory. Both used a large platform, Hevelius constructed the platform on the roof of three houses, Eimmart used the large bastion of the castle.

Observing instruments in Eimmart’s observatoObserving instruments in Eimmart’s observato

Fig. 11. Observing instruments in Eimmart’s observatory (Rost, J.L.: Astronomisches Handbuch. Nürnberg 1718)

Observing instruments in Eimmart’s observatoObserving instruments in Eimmart’s observatoObserving instruments in Eimmart’s observatoObserving instruments in Eimmart’s observato

Fig. 12. Observing instruments in Eimmart’s observatory (Delsenbach 1716)

In 1682 Johann Philipp Wurzelbau (1651-1725), a scholar of Eimmart started to build another private observatory in Nuremberg (Deinzer 2010). An octagonal observation tower was erected in 1692 on the roof of his house, Spitzenberg 4, (used until 1725). Wurzelbau’s student Johann Leonhard Rost (1688-1725) continued his work as an observational astronomer and published his "Astronomisches Handbuch" (Astronomical handbook) in 1774. There he described some instruments of Eimmart and Wurzelbau in detail. Many of these instruments show a greater or lesser impact from Hevelius - his publications were known to Rost and Wurzelbau and Hevelius was often quoted in their works. Both towers of the observatories in Nuremberg and Gdansk had an octagonal floor plan and are topped by a pyramid-shaped metal roof. Windows in the wall and roof hatches can be opened in the desired direction.

Johann Philipp Wurzelbau’s observatory and hJohann Philipp Wurzelbau’s observatory and h

Fig. 13. Johann Philipp Wurzelbau’s observatory and his quadrant in the GNM (Rost, J.L.: Astronomisches Handbuch. Nürnberg 1718. Photo: Gudrun Wolfschmidt)

Peter Kolb (1675-1726), in 1696 assistant of Eimmart, studied in Halle at the Saale (dissertation: "De Natura Cometarum", 1701). On behalf of Bernhard Frederick Baron of Krosigk (1656/60-1714) his secretary Kolb was sent in 1705 to South Africa; there he set up an observatory at the Cape of Good Hope taking Nuremberg as a model (Markus 2012). Kolb stayed until 1712 and determined the latitude and longitude of Cape Town and made meteorological and astronomical observations as well as magnetic measurements of the declination.


Present use 
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The bastion, the former fundaments of the observatory, is open to the public; the castle of Nuremberg is a busy touristic place.



Bibliography (books and published articles) 
  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
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Deák, Antal András: Ein Kartograph als Astronom im Schatten des Halbmondes: Johann Christoph Müller (1673-1721). In: Wolfschmidt: Astronomie in Nürnberg, 2010, S. 288--297.

Deinzer, Willi: Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725) - von wo aus hat er beobachtet? In: Wolfschmidt: Astronomie in Nürnberg, 2010, S. 298-203.

Delsenbach, Johann Adam: Nürnbergische Prospecten - Vues de Nuremberg. Nürnberg 1785. Reprint: Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat der DDR, München: Hugendubel 1986.

Diefenbacher, Michael: Nürnberger kartographische Traditionen seit dem 16. Jahrhundert. In: Diefenbacher, Michael; Heinz, Markus und Ruth Bach-Damaskinos: "auserlesene und allerneueste Landkarten" - Der Verlag Homann in Nürnberg 1702-1848. Eine Ausstellung des Stadtarchivs Nürnberg und der Museen der Stadt Nürnberg mit Unterstützung der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz im Stadtmuseum Fembohaus vom 19. September bis 24. November 2002. Nürnberg: Tümmel-Verlag 2002.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Ausführliche Erklärung Uber Zwey neue Homännische Charten / Als über das Systema Solare et Planetarium Copernico-Hugeniam, und Europam Eclipsatam, In welcher Alles / was in besagten Charten angemerkcet worden / absonderlich die letzte / sowol universal in dem Systemate Planetario, als particular und besonders in dem Europa Elipsata vorgestellte grosse Sonnen-Finsternuß vom 12ten May des vergangenen 1706ten Jahrs / samt einer Astronomia comparativa, oder wie die Beschaffenheit der Stern aus der Sonne und einen jeden Planeten seyn mögte / Allen wahren Freunden der edlen Astronomie zum Nutzen und Belustigung in möglicher Deutlichkeit vorgetragen wird. Nürnberg: Johann Baptist Homann 1707.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Neue und gründliche Anweisung Wie nach einer universalen Methode Grosse Sonnen-Uhren auf jeden ebenen Flächen ... richtig zu verzeichnen ... Gnomonigue Jn vier Theilen. Nürnberg: Johann Michael Spörlin seel. Wittenberg 1719.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Historische Nachricht Von den Nürnbergischen Mathematicis und Künstlern welche fast von dreyen Seculis her durch ihre Schrifften und Kunst-Bemühungen die Mathematic und mehreste Künste in Nürnberg vor anderen trefflich / befördert und sich um solche sehr wohl verdienst gemacht / zu einem guten Exempel, und zur weiteren rühmlichen Nachahmung, in zweyen Theilen an das Liecht gestellet, auch mit vilen nützlichen Anmerckungen und verschiedenen Kupfern versehen von Johann Gabriel Doppelmayer, der Kayserl. Leopoldino-Carolinischen Academiae Naturae Curiosum, auch der Königl. Preußischen Societät der Wissenschaften Mitgliedt und Proffessore Publ. Mathemarum. Nürnberg: Peter Conrad Monaths 1730. Neudruck: Hildesheim 1972.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Grosser ATLAS Ueber die Gantze Welt... . Charten ... in Kupfer gebracht und ausgefertigt von Johann Baptist Homann. Nürnberg: Johann Ernst Adelbulner 1731.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Atlas coelestis in qvo mvndvs spectabilis et in eodem stellarvm omnium Phoenomena notabilia, ... secvndvm Nic. Copernici et ex parte Tychonis de Brahe Hypothesin. Nürnberg: Homannsche Erben 1742.

Doppelmayer, Johann Gabriel: Atlas Novus Coelestis, in quo Mundus Spectabilis, et in Eodem tam Errantium quam Inerrantium Stellarum Phoenomena Notabilia. Nürnberg: Homanns Erben 1748.

Dürer, Albrecht: Vnderweysung der messung / mit dem zirckel vn richtscheyt / in Linien ebnen unnd gantzen corporen. Nürnberg: Hieronymus Andreae 1525, (2. Auflage posthum) 1538. Reprint: Nördlingen: Verlag Dr. Alfons Uhl 1983.

Forbes, Eric Gray: Das Eimmartsche Observatorium zu Nürnberg (1691-1757). In: Sterne und Weltraum 12 (1970), S. 311-315.

Füssel, Stephan (Hg.): Hartmann Schedel: Weltchronik. Nachdruck [der] kolorierten Gesamtausgabe von 1493. Einleitung und Kommentar von Stephan Füssel. Augsburg: Weltbild 2004.

Gaab, Hans: Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1677-1750). In: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Bd. 4. Frankfurt am Main: Harri Deutsch (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 13) 2001, S. 46-99.

Gaab, Hans: Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725). In: Dick, Wolfgang R. & Jürgen Hamel: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte 5. Frankfurt am Main: Harri Deutsch (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15) 2002, S. 47-114.

Gaab, Hans: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch and astronomy in Nuremberg in the second half of the 18th century. (German Title: Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch und die Astronomie in Nürnberg in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Jahrhunderts). In: Duerbeck, H.W.; Dick, Wolfgang R. & Jürgen Hamel (ed.): Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18) 2003, p. 40-89.

Gaab, Hans: Die Himmelskarten von Albrecht Dürer, Teil 1 und Teil 2. In: Regiomontanusbote 16 (2003), Heft 2, S. 6-19 und Heft 3, S. 19-33.

Gaab, Hans; Lemmer, Uwe & Ekkehard Wagner (Hg.): Astronomie auf der Kaiserburg Nürnberg. Lauf an der Pegnitz: Europaforum-Verlag 2007.

Gaab, Hans; Görz, Günther; Heber, Ulrich; Hölzl, Dieter; Leich, Pierre; Nelkenbrecher, Marco und Ralph Puchta: Astronomie in der Metropolregion Nürnberg. Geschichte, Forschung und Volkssternwarten. Katalog zur Wanderausstellung anlässlich des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie. Nürnberg: Nürnberger Astronomische Gesellschaft e. V. (Schriftenreihe der Nürnberger Astronomischen Gesellschaft; Heft Nr. 2) 2009.

Gaab, Hans: Die Eimmart-Sternwarte in Nürnberg. In: Wolfschmidt: Astronomie in Nürnberg, 2010, S. 212-234.

Gent, Robert Harry van: Mapping the Lunar Shadow: The Earliest Solar Eclipse Maps. In: Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun und Hilmar W. Duerbeck (Hg.): Development of Solar Research - Entwicklung der Sonnenforschung. Proceedings of the Colloquium Freiburg (Breisgau), September 15, 2003. Frankfurt am Main: Harri Deutsch (Acta Historica Astronomiae; 25) 2005, S. 103-127.

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Hennig, L.: 500 Jahre Regiomontan, 500 Jahre Astronomie : Ausstellung der Stadt Nürnberg und des Kuratoriums "Der Mensch und der Weltraum e.V." in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Germanischen Nationalmuseum Nürnberg, 2.10.1976-2.1.1977.

Hirschmann, Gerhard und Franz Xaver Pröll: Johann Baptist Homann und seine Erben. Nürnberg (Ausstellungskatalog der Stadtbibliothek Nürnberg; 36) 1964.

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Kolb, Peter: Caput bonae spei hodiernum, das ist: Vollständige Beschreibung des afrikanischen Vorgebürges der Guten Hoffnung. Nürnberg 1719. Reprint: Reise zum Vorgebirge der Guten Hoffnung. Edition: Dr. Paul Germann. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus 1922.

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Markus, Karsten: Peter Kolb (1675-1726), ein fränkischer Astronom in Afrika. In: Wolfschmidt 2012, S. 294-323.

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Wolfschmidt, Gudrun: Die Bedeutung der Mädlerschen Mondkarten in der Entwicklung der Mondtopographie. München: Deutsches Museum (Deutsches Museum Jahrbuch, Abhandlungen und Berichte, Neue Folge; Band 7) 1990, S. 132-154.

Wolfschmidt, Gudrun (ed.): Astronomie in Nürnberg. Anläßlich des 500. Todestages von Bernhard Walther (1430-1504) im Juni 2004 und des 300. Todestages von Georg Christoph Eimmart (1638-1705) am 5. Januar 2005. With contributions by Uta Lindgren, Richard L. Kremer, Klaus Matthäus, E. Schmidt, Hans Gaab, Doris Gerstl, Inge Keil, Ronald Stoyan, R.E. Schielicke, Antal András Deák, Willi Deinzer, Olaf Simons, Siegfried Kett. Hamburg: tredition science (Nuncius Hamburgensis - Beiträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften; Bd. 3) 2010.

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  • InfoTheme: Astronomy from the Renaissance to the mid-twentieth century
    Entity: 99
    Subentity: 1
    Version: 3
    Status: PUB
    Date: 2018-08-26 10:11:32
    Author(s): Gudrun Wolfschmidt


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